Presentations on Life Span Development


>>PARK: Welcome to another morning. Apart
from the world of psychology, I promised you that you would be on the Wiki and I took five
minutes this morning before or after breakfast to do it. This is my Wiki and I’ve had it
for a couple of years now, and I’ve used it in a couple of different ways, and I’m not
going to spend time on it. But if you go to get psych.wikispaces.com, you can get online
Wiki, no problem. If you want to join the Wiki, you can. You don’t have to. We tested
it. They have to make sure that if you’re not joining it, you just have to click on
it and it will open. And as you can see a month or so ago, I actually updated the first
page of my Wiki, and guess who’s on the front there? Okay. So anything that you see on
the Wiki like there are certain fields, anything
that’s underlined like this is a link. So if you wanted to, for example, open that up,
you would see the infamous David Myers who is the textbook author of the World for intro
to psych, and the most wonderful man I’ve ever met. And he worked with us on the standards
revision committee, so he’s one of the experts that worked with us when we wrote and revised
these standards. He is just a friend of psychology, as is Dr. Burrell, and will forever (ever)
be someone that you want to be devoted to. In fact, he has donated money, too, when he
asked for workshops for teachers. So you know that. So that’s just a little example of how
you open up a link. What I already put on here was [unclear]. There is the Clark high school teachers’ link
I promised I would put on. You can peruse this on your own, but when you click on the
left there on the link, there is a [unclear] I already told you about I can put on for
you my scientific inquiry domain, all those links that you wanted. That document is a
Word doc. You can open these up and save them on your computer. The bio psych thing I did
is on there. The second thing I did that had the essential questions and that kind of stuff
related to teaching and some ideas was on there. And I will put this presentation on
there, as well, for developmental. And also, we can put anything you want. So for example,
I took the liberty of putting some of your pictures that I already took on here, and
hopefully, we’ll add some more so that you’ll have some good memories in picture form. Okay. If you would like to add anything to
the Wiki, you can so you can play with that at home and see that you can actually… you
can’t edit it, but there’s a discussion prompt and stuff that you can look at, and
you can write things and edit things on your
own if you want. You can send a link through a discussion that everybody can see and open
up. If you want to send me a link, I’ll put them on here; whatever you want. But, at least,
it’s a place you can go, like I promised, to get stuff, okay? I’ll be at work too; no
problemo. In fact, there are some things on here like when I talk tomorrow about the science
and history of happiness and the research being done by psychologists today, there’s
actually something that’s already on here related to that and some other stuff that’s
very interesting. But anyway, it’s there for you, okay? Also, when Nancy was talking today, again,
my brain was going crazy relating to things that I would love to talk about but don’t
have a lot of time. Even though I’m going to discuss development specifically in that
domain, lifespan development today, I’m going to talk about only one of these seven units
that you teach, correct? It just adds a quick little survey here. When you look at the methods and issues and
the theories of lifespan development and you look at the stages of development, three,
four, five, six, and seven, how many of you believe that you spend most of your time on
three, four, five, and six? Raise your hand. Think about your unit. You spend most of your
unit discussing stages three, four, five, and six for a good reason, right? Why? Why do you think you spend more time
on those units?>>WORKSHOP PARTICIPANT: There are just so
many times… there’s so much. Other than hearing what different stage within the theories,
you can just go for days.>>PARK: There’s so much information that you
don’t leave anything out, right, Jill?>>JILL: They can relate to it. They’re adolescents.>>PARK: Yes, they do.>>JILL: Sometimes, they’re still kids though.>>PARK: Absolutely. And so when you’re doing
your lifespan development unit and you’re tracing development, you can have them relate
to every aspect of this development as you go through each stage. And you discuss cognitive
and social and emotional and socio-cultural and physical and motor development. And they’re
like, “Yeah, I remember when I was trying to learn to ride a bike and fell on my butt
and broke my leg.” I mean, they’ve got all these awesome personal experiences to share
with you that make life very interesting. So you don’t have to come up with your own
examples, right, which is nice, for a change. And also, it’s relatable, so it goes back
to how they’re really actively involved in your lessons because of that. However, it is very important to teach adults
with an agent. You don’t want to not teach it. So I’m actually focusing my workshop lesson
today on that stage, number seven. Not that there’s not a lot of great stuff I’d like
to talk about on the others, but I think that there are some things that I’d like to pull
in today specifically related to how you use real research in your classes to teach about
developmental psychology. And the real research that I decided to use
with my human development class last semester at college was the research I’m going to show
you today, which I also use in the intro to psych class with freshmen. I have intro to
psych freshmen, and I had in my human development class mostly nurses who were going back to
get their nursing degree and they have to take this course. It was required by the university
to get their BA in nursing. So it works at any level. I’m sure it works at the high school
level, no doubt in my mind, because it’s readable; it’s the right level of reading. It allows
for a lot of great discussion. And the kids will learn so much about research
methods that this is a great example, again, of how I said you need to teach research methods
throughout the course. So I chose research methods to teach about adulthood and aging.
I’m going to show that here, okay? Also, some of this stuff is in your binder.
You may have trouble finding it, so don’t even worry about looking for it, but there
are some examples of some of the things I’m going to talk about already in your binder.
And I’m going to also give out a few other things that I might actually (and hope) have
time for you to do an activity with, a couple of activities that relate to this chapter.
One of which I actually did with my students last year. Also, you’ve got materials from APA that I
asked for specifically on aging. This is the American Psychological Association. They could
bring you all kinds of great materials, and I have a couple of links on the PowerPoint
to show you also websites where you can go to get information from them. There’s Division
12, the Clinical Geropsychology Division, which, if kids are looking for careers and
jobs and working with individuals and aging, there are a lot of great materials on the
APA website for careers related to aging. So, a great pamphlet, and some of these things
you can download and print yourself. Some of them you can also get hard copies of which
you can if you wanted for your classroom. There are a lot of great resources available
for you, okay? So looking again at the content standards
(I have to do that. That’s the way I work) these are three standards that relate to our
feelings, four of them standards that relate to adulthood and aging. We want them to be
able to identify major physical changes associated with adulthood and aging, which we’ve done
with all the stages prior to this, right? You’ve done that. Describe cognitive changes
in adulthood and aging. They’ve already done cognitive changes from infancy to adolescence
and early adulthood, correct? And discuss social, cultural, and emotional issues in
aging. Again, we have taught them this prior to this
stage, so they already understand a lot of the theories behind this. And now, they should
continue. They should continue to be able to say, “Here’s where I am.” Because they’re
adolescents, right? They’re probably here somewhere, right? And they’re eventually going
to become and they’re already becoming young adults. And what’s going to happen to them
as they age? I think it’s very important that they learn that. And that’s what I really
want to be a focus of this part of my lesson. So, if I’m looking at essential questions,
which I earlier mentioned, how is development a continuous process from conception to death?
Is that a good essential question in your unit and applies to any stage you’re talking
about? See, it’s a big question. There’ll be many answers, right? Does student development
occur gradually or in stages? How many of you have that discussion with your students
from day one, right? And talking about how things happen in stages that they’re not necessarily
overnight. And there’s the school [unclear], so that’s nothing new. Everybody starts with
that actually when you talk about in the very first day of the chapter, I think. Do people change over the lifespan or are
they relatively stable? Have you asked the questions to your students about that? Do
you think you’re the same person you were when you were 20? Do you think you changed
much emotionally since you were 25? Your students, you know… when you were 10, were you the
same geeky kid that you are today? And the kid’s like, “Yup, I was.” Some of them will
say, “No. I was shy. I am now outgoing.” So what made you change? These are issues that
you want to explore at any stage of your development in adolescence. Are there critical periods? You were mentioning
the word critical period this morning with life. Of course, we have to make sure that
the kids understand the difference. And there is a difference between critical and sensitive
periods and how that applies to development. And there are some things that are sensitive
periods at certain stages of life where things should happen because they’ll happen the best
but they’re not critical. And that has to happen at the best stage in life. And that’s
a really good discussion to have when talking about aging. Also, how to readily interact with the environment?
So, the nature-nurture interaction. I never say versus. I try not to use that anymore.
It used to be H versus E. No. It’s interaction that I must go both ways. That’s really an
important concept in aging itself. So the essential questions related to this
unit (I’ll move) there are more. We must bring in the cultural aspect. They have to understand
gender; they have to understand sociocultural, economic issues that relate to aging. Do they
not? Keep those in mind as very important questions that you might ask your students
so that they can have enduring understanding when they leave your room and go out into
the other world, not here, okay? [Laughs] So, again, look at the themes on the APA website
which relate to the standards. I already pointed them out. And you can see some of these things
and they actually all relate to your unit on development. This is the website on the APA on aging, some
of the resources I earlier showed you, so you can find that link and you get this PowerPoint
and open it up. There’s the Life Plan for the Life Span, APA Committee on Aging. This
brochure was initially developed for psychologists by the 2005 APA Committee on Aging (we call
CONA.) This is a wonderful resource so that when you click this right here, this will
take you to the website where you can again see brochures and resource guides and other
materials available to you that you’ll be able to use with your kids. There are fact
sheets down here. There are PDF files you can open up so you can give them in your classroom
on many different topics like coping with stress and anxiety, memory and aging. In fact,
I think I put the memory and aging one in your folder already so you can see it’s at
the PowerPoint, all right? There are a lot of materials in there. This is what I want to focus on today. How
many of you have ever heard of the MIDUS study, really, honestly heard of it? I’m not surprised. I never heard of it until
about three years ago, and it was actually, what, 1985 when they started it, do you think?
So anyway, we’re going to talk about that today and how we can use this in our classroom. Now, I did put a summary of the MIDUS study
in your book. I don’t know if you’ll be able to find it. It’s called Midlife in the United
States: A National Study of Health and Well-Being. So the summary pages that download right from
the Internet are in your book. But very quickly, when you look at this study, what is it all
about? It’s a longitudinal study, okay? And this longitudinal study is something that
I believe that will help you teach your students about adulthood and aging in their world.
You can do real research as psychologists. It was 1995, ’96 that it was conducted. The
midlife development in the United States, that’s what it stands for. It’s really a great
example of research to share with the kids. It’s a multidisciplinary team of scholars
from psychology, sociology… I can’t say this word. Yes, epidemiology.>>WORKSHOP PARTICIPANT: Epidemiology.>>PARK: Thank you, epidemiology (my brain
is tired), demography, anthropology, medicine, healthcare policy. And they wanted to investigate
the role of behavioral, psychological, and social factors in accounting for age-related
variations in health and well-being in a national sample of Americans. So I’m like, all right,
this is perfect for teaching about adulthood and aging stages in my class. So it’s a longitudinal
study. And what’s wonderful about it is that you can see how this information is used to
develop all kinds of resources for the public as well as resources that you can use as teachers,
okay? So when you go to this website, one of the
things that I use in my classroom besides the actual information about the study, which
is at the main page of the study, and when you go here about the study, you’ll get that
information that I actually just read to you briefly. It’s a nice summary of the actual
study and how it was conducted. But what I really liked about this besides for researchers,
there’s a link for researchers that explains how this study was done in 1995, and that’s
actually MIDUS I, and then more research was added. The second MIDUS study was conducted
in 2002 – 2006 to further study the changes in the longitudinal lives of individuals.
And there’s a third one that’s ready to come out in 2013, I think. They’re going to conduct
more research. So there’s a real life research study that
you can bring into the classroom and have your students read about, analyze, discuss,
and learn about adulthood and aging rather than just using your textbook and just using
notes and lectures and even activities, okay? So how could you possibly use this, and how
could you make it so that the kids would be interested in it? What’s available to you
as a teacher that you can use of this website? So here is one thing I did. We don’t have
a lot of time. I decided that there are these awesome newsletters on the website. First
of all, there’s the MIDUS overview. So I downloaded the MIDUS overview which I put in your books,
and I did a cooperative learning exercise. I divided up my class into groups. Today,
I’m only going to divide you up into two groups to save time. But if there are 30 kids in
the class, then, you know, 4 into 30… if possible then more than 3 kids in a group.
It depends on how many kids you have. I said, okay. One group is going to read the
MIDUS overview, which is only four pages long, so most of them can read it in about 10 minutes.
They’ll highlight the main ideas of the MIDUS overview. This is in your folder. They will,
as a group, discuss it, and they’ll come up with five or six very important points that
they want to share with the rest of the class and they’ll be the first group to present
about what the MIDUS study is all about. So they’ll look at the research study itself,
how the samples were collected, the content of the study. They’ll be talking about it’s
a survey, have a look at socio-demographic factors, genetic factors, life challenges,
health behaviors. They’re going to summarize those key points in the study for everyone
in class. The second group is then going to probably
look at the long reach of childhood experiences. I put that in your book as well. So that small
group will read that newsletter and, again, summarize the main ideas that were found about
how childhood influences you as you [coughing]. Isn’t that something you talk about in your
classes? What are your childhood experiences and how they influence you as an adult? It
focuses on the findings related to mental and physical health in adulthood, again, reviewing
some of the findings from this research study. So they’ll do the same thing. They’ll read
it in their group. They’ll discuss it or come up with main ideas, and they’ll compare it
with the rest of the class. That’ll be the second group. Then, you pick and choose. I like to stress
it along. They’ll be stressed how this could affect our healthy well-being because we know
it does. So the children read that and that group takes care of that. Let’s see. What
else? Cognitive abilities, that’s a good one. We teach cognitive development in all our
stages, so one group does that one. So depending on how many groups you have in your class,
you could do one, two, three, four, five, six of them, right? So that’s one whole class
period, is it not?>>WORKSHOP PARTICIPANT: Say what?>>PARK: You’ve introduced it. You have explained
what the study is all about briefly because one group is going to exchange… I’ll be
actually explaining it in more detail with the intro newsletter. So maybe you spend one
class period (for me that was 45 minutes) of the children reading the newsletter, highlighting
the main ideas, and coming up with what they’re going to share with the class. So day two,
you begin the process of sharing, right, with the jigsaw activity? And then each group only
needs five minutes to share what they’ve learned. You’re not taking an hour of presentation.
So five, six, seven minutes, group one, group two, group three. So again, that might take
a whole period, right, for every group to share. Then, what might you do with this? What would
you do the third day? Ideas?>>WORKSHOP PARTICIPANT: I’d have to move on.>>PARK: To what?>>WORKSHOP PARTICIPANT: I’m sorry. To something
else.>>PARK: What do you mean to something else?>>WORKSHOP PARTICIPANT: To my next topic because
I have 20 weeks. This is great.>>PARK: What would be your next topic that
might fit into the curriculum that you have to teach about adulthood and aging?>>WORKSHOP PARTICIPANT: Let me think about
that.>>PARK: Okay. What else could you do, the
next step?>>WORKSHOP PARTICIPANT: Death and dying.>>PARK: Okay, very good. You might move on
to some other issues related to adulthood and aging that you really should talk about
like death and dying, and we tend to avoid that. We should talk about it.>>WORKSHOP PARTICIPANT: I use Tuesdays with
Morrie. I will ask them. I take excerpts from it and have them analyze [cross-talking].>>PARK: And the college professor that did
this his last lecture?>>WORKSHOP PARTICIPANT: [Unclear]>>PARK: What’s his name?>>WORKSHOP PARTICIPANT: [Unclear]>>PARK: Okay. You have to see that. We’ll
put that on the link on the Wiki. Somebody write it down for me, okay? [Laughs] That’s
amazing for discussing death and aging and dying. This is so positive. Okay, any other
ideas?>>WORKSHOP PARTICIPANT: Well, I think before
you move on, even if it’s just 15 minutes, you need to have some sort of personal reflection
because when they come out of groups, they really need the personal responsibility of
writing on their own, so it maybe a journal entry. I’d take it out of that.>>PARK: Good. I think that’s a great idea.
You can come with tons of things you can do as a check for understanding to see what they
learned. You can come up with a journal reflection which also can be a check for understanding.
It certainly is a great example of assessment because you were asking, do you need assessment?
You absolutely need assessment because assessment helps the kids learn. Assessment is not a
test at the end of the chapter for a grade.>>WORKSHOP PARTICIPANT: Especially coming
out of a group activity, individual accountability…>>PARK: Absolutely. So you also want some
individual accountability because when you’re doing group work, you know it doesn’t work
if you only get a group grade. We need to have individual grades as well. So if there’s
a group grade, then you need to have an individual grade. That counts at least a quarter because
there are four in a group. You see what I mean? So, maybe a quarter of the total presentations.
So you can come up with some creative ways to grade. We could spend hours discussing
that. Any other ideas?>>WORKSHOP PARTICIPANT: I write them letters
with my 18-year-old self.>>WORKSHOP PARTICIPANT: [Laughs]>>WORKSHOP PARTICIPANT: And tell that 18-year-old
exactly what to do so that you get there…>>PARK: What you learned and what you want
to remember when you’re that age, about what you learned? Some of you may actually write
letters, have your kids write letters to themselves. I know we have grade school teachers that
have the children write letters to themselves and mail them to our students when they’re
graduating high school. It’s wonderful. The kids get that letter from their fourth grade
teacher and they’re like, “Oh, she remembered.” So the purpose of the assignment that actually
is so helpful. If you use those letters in the classroom that the fourth grade teacher
wrote about the kid when you’re discussing child development in your psych class, how
cool is that?>>WORKSHOP PARTICIPANT: That’s really cool.>>WORKSHOP PARTICIPANT: It’s cool. I’m not
sure this would work, but to relate it on… could they have an audience that’s other than
themselves? That is to say, could they consider two different ways to run with this? One to
think of contacting some kind of aging community that might benefit from the knowledge, or
for example, on the MIDUS group, Margie Lachman who’s one of the researchers, she’s just a
wonderful teacher. She teaches at Brandeis, her daughters a Clark alum like Dr. Burrell.
And I wonder if the students were to send it off to somebody like her or one of the
researchers from whom there are links there and say, “You may be too busy, but could one
of your students look over what we wrote and provide some feedback?”>>PARK: An excellent idea.>>WORKSHOP PARTICIPANT: Along the same lines,
probably every one of my students if they have an elderly relative, all right, you could
use the knowledge created in the activity and have them do an interview, maybe video,
and ask some questions and do some original research.>>PARK: Yes, interview them. Take questions
out of the research and ask them the same questions. That’s perfect, isn’t it?>>WORKSHOP PARTICIPANT: A lot of places have
adult daycares, and some of the students have their grandparents living with them, but then
during the day, they have these other activities. And when they go, they just don’t sit there
and watch TV. It actually can be related to living at home.>>PARK: And you can always bring your students
to the local nursing home or other areas that they can work with them. I brought my students
to the nursing home in the district and we had an activity day there, and it was phenomenal.
I mean, the kids were doing karaoke. And believe me, the adults were singing much better than
the kids; the nursing home doing karaoke. They were doing puzzles with them. They were
taking walks with them. The nursing home has animals there, pets. They had dogs and cats. So the kids already knew about the importance
of the animals in people’s lives and how it’s very related to stress and health as you get
older. So they were experiencing a lot of the stuff at the nursing home that they talked
about in class. Even if it’s only a one-day discussion in class, that one day at the nursing
home just added to what they learned in like it just multiplied it by I don’t know how
much. I can’t even tell you. So seeing what we discussed, seeing what they read about
in the research studies. So that’s a great way of adding in the surface
learning activity for your students to experience this. Some kids don’t have grandparents, and
some kids live with their grandparents. So you’ve got a wide range of kids in your room
that have different experiences that they’re going to want to share, and, obviously, of
course, to learn from this. So I love all your ideas and, of course, we can come up
with a hundred more and that’s the whole point of this. What you think is how you could use
this in your classroom and not just take what I said I did and use it because there are
a lot of ways you can go with it, okay? What you mentioned, Nancy, are ways kind of
like what I wanted the kids to do. When I first came up with this idea, I said I want
you to develop a presentation. This is an authentic assessment, a presentation on what
you learned that you can use, not just in my classroom where you can present this information
to adults to help them understand the aging process. What might you recommend to your
students? Where could they present?>>WORKSHOP PARTICIPANT: Write in there their
parents and what their parents assess.>>PARK: They can do that at home. How about
a bigger audience?>>WORKSHOP PARTICIPANT: The faculty.>>PARK: The faculty of your school, the PTA,
parents’ organization. On back-to-school night, my students had all these books that they
got, the free thing on how to get their memory increasing. They were giving that to the parents.
It was hysterical. From the Data Foundation, you know, stress and aging, memory and aging.
They’re like, “Would you like a pamphlet? Would you like a pamphlet?” And the parents
went, “Are you trying to tell me something?” But they made up these little books themselves
as well. They made up little pamphlets and summarized some things they learned, and they
had a table in the back-to-school night area. We had a big ground. We have a cafeteria on
that school night so every department has a table set up. And we have ideas and examples
of things our students do in our classes on the tables. So to have your students man the
tables and pass out stuff that they did in psychology, it’s really cool advertisement,
and the parents love it. “Wow, look at what they do? Pamphlets they made up and stuff.”
I think it’s a way for them to share what they learned with the adults, so that’s another
great way to spread some of this information around. And I’m sure there are others, okay? Oh, that’s the website. Hold on. Let me close
the website. Okay. So the newsletters provide summaries
and then your students can add to that what they’ve learned and provide things at other
forms. So lots and lots of great information from the MIDUS study. There are also NPR news.
You can always go to these links and you can listen to podcasts related to many different
topics. This one happens to be called Protecting Mental Strengths through Middle Age. Multiple
related studies and research have sprung off from the MIDUS study, and so there are other
groups all over the country that are doing research related to aging. So this is a nice
little podcast that you can listen to. I already said how there’s MIDUS I, II, and
III so yeah, it is 2013 that the collection is scheduled to begin to continue this longitudinal
study, so what a great a thing to use in teaching about research. You could talk about this
in the first chapter in your book or you can wait to talk about it during development,
right? Or you can use them both if you like. Actually, to be honest with you, forget what
this link is. [Laughs]>>WORKSHOP PARTICIPANT: That’s the article.>>PARK: That’s the article in The New York
Times. And it actually came up, no problem, for me and I read it so I’ve got to play with
that. I’m not sure why it didn’t come up. That’s the link.>>WORKSHOP PARTICIPANT: We only get like 20
hours a month.>>PARK: All right, so are you ready for TEDTalks?>>WORKSHOP PARTICIPANT: Who?>>PARK: You’ve got to watch this. Okay, this
is Dan Buettner. This is something you have to show your students in class. Well, you
don’t have to but I recommend you do it. It’s not that long and they will learn so much
from it. Have you ever heard of Blue Zones?>>WORKSHOP PARTICIPANT: No.>>PARK: Okay. It says here, teams of scientists
have been studying Blue Zones to try to figure out why some people live so much longer than
others, in a nutshell. So let’s watch him talk about this research and think how would
you use this in your classroom?>>[Music] [Start of video presentation] [Applause]>>BUETTNER: Something called the Danish Twin
Study established that only about 10 percent of how long the average person lives, within
certain biological limits, is dictated by our genes. The other 90 percent is dictated
by our lifestyle. So the premise of Blue Zone: if we can find the optimal lifestyle of longevity,
we can come up with a de facto formula for longevity. But if you ask the average American what the
optimal formula of longevity is, they probably couldn’t tell you. They probably heard of
the South Beach diet, or the Atkins diet, and you have the USDA food pyramid. There’s
what Oprah tells us. There’s what Dr. Oz tells us. The fact of the matter is there’s a lot of
confusion around what really helps us live longer better. Should you be running marathons
or doing yoga? Should you eat organic meat or should you be eating tofu? When it comes
to supplements, should you be taking them? How about these hormones or resveratrol? And
does purpose play into it, spirituality? And how about how we socialize? Well, our approach to finding longevity was
to team up with National Geographic and the National Institute on Aging to find the four
demographically confirmed areas that are geographically defined, and then bring a team of experts
in there to methodically go through exactly what these people do to distill down the cross-cultural
distillation. And at the end of this, I’m going to tell you what that distillation is,
but first, I’d like to debunk some common myths when it comes to longevity. And the first myth is if you try really hard,
you can live to be 100. False. The problem is only about 1 out of 5,000 people in America
live to be 100. Your chances are very low. Even though it’s the fastest growing demographic
in America, it’s hard to reach 100. The problem is that we are not programmed for longevity.
We are programmed for something called procreative success. I love that word. It reminds me of
my college days. [Laughs] Biologists termed procreative success to mean
the age where you have you children and then another generation, the age when your children
have children. After that, the effect of evolution completely dissipates. If you’re a mammal,
if you’re a rat, or an elephant, or a human, in between, it’s the same story. So to make
it to age 100, you not only have to have had a very good lifestyle, you also have to have
won the genetic lottery. The second myth is there are treatments that
can help slow, reverse, or even stop aging. False. When you think of it, there are 99
things that can age us. Deprive your brain of oxygen for just a few minutes, those brain
cells die; they never come back. Play tennis too hard on your knees, ruin your cartilage;
that cartilage never comes back. Our arteries can clog. Our brains can gunk up with plaque
and we can get Alzheimer’s. There are just too many things to go wrong. Our bodies have 35 trillion cells; trillion
with the T. We’re talking national debt numbers here. [Laughter] Those cells turn themselves over once every
eight years. And every time they turn themselves over, there’s some damage and that damage
builds up. It builds up exponentially. It’s a little bit like the days when we all had
Beatles albums or Eagles albums. Then we make a copy of that on a cassette tape and then
let our friends copy that cassette tape. And pretty soon, with successive generations,
that tape sounds like garbage. Well, the same things happen to our cells. That’s why a 65-year-old
person is aging at a rate of about 125 times faster than a 12-year-old person. So, if there’s nothing you can do to slow
your aging or stop your aging, what am I doing here? Well, the fact of the matter is the
best science tells us that the capacity of the human body, my body, your body, is about
90 years, a little bit more for women. But life expectancy in this country is only 78.
So somewhere along the line, we’re leaving about 12 good years on the table. These are
years that we could get. And the research shows that they would be years largely free
of chronic disease, heart disease, cancer, and diabetes. We think the best way to get these missing
years is to look at the cultures around the world that are actually experiencing them;
areas where people are living to age 100 at rates up to 10 times greater than we are;
areas where the life expectancy is an extra dozen years and the rate of middle age mortality
is a fraction of what it is in this country. We found our first Blue Zone about 125 miles
off the coast of Italy on the island of Sardinia. Not, the entire island, the island is about
1.4 million people, but only up in the highlands, an area called the Nuoro Province. Here, we
have this area where men live the longest, about 10 times more centenarians than we have
here in America. And this is a place where people not only reach age 100, they do so
with extraordinary vigor, places where 102-year-olds still ride their bike to work, chop wood,
and can [laugh] beat a guy 60 years younger than them. [Laugh] Their history actually goes back to about
the time of Christ. It’s actually a Bronze Age culture that’s been isolated. Because
the land is so infertile, they’re largely shepherds which occasions regular low-intensity
physical activity. Their diet is mostly plant-based accentuated with foods that they can carry
into the fields. They came up with an unleavened whole wheat bread called carta da musica made
out of durum wheat; a type of cheese made from grass-fed animals so the cheese is high
in Omega-3 fatty acids instead of Omega-6 fatty acids from corn-fed animals. And a type
of wine that has three times the level of polyphenols than any known wine in the world.
It’s called Cannonau. But the real secret, I think, lies more in
the way that they organize their society. And one of the most salient elements of the
Sardinian society is how they treat older people. Do you ever notice here in America,
social equity seems to peak at about age 24? Just look at the advertisement. Here in Sardinia,
the older you get, the more equity you have, the more wisdom you’re celebrated for. You
go into the bars in Sardinia, instead of seeing the Sports Illustrated swimsuit calendar,
you see the centenarian of the month calendar. This, as it turns out, is not only good for
your aging parents to keep them close to the family. It imparts about four to six years
of extra life expectancy. Research shows it’s also good for the children of those families
who have lower rates of mortality and lower rates of disease. That’s called the grandmother
effect. We found our second Blue Zone on the other
side of the planet, about 800 miles south of Tokyo on the archipelago of Okinawa. Okinawa
is actually 161 small islands. And in the northern part of the main island, this is
ground zero for world longevity. This is a place where the oldest living female population
is found. It’s a place where people have the longest disability-free life expectancy in
the world. They have what we want. They live a long time and tend to die in their sleep
very quickly and often, I can tell you, after sex. They live about seven good years longer than
the average American, five times as many centenarians as we have in America, one-fifth the rate
of colon and breast cancer (big killers here in America) and one-sixth the rate of cardiovascular
disease. And the fact that this culture has yielded these numbers suggests strongly, they
have something to teach us. What do they do? Once again, a plant-based
diet, full of vegetables with lots of color in them and they eat about eight times as
much tofu as Americans do. More significant than what they eat, it’s how they eat it.
They have all kinds of little strategies to keep from overeating, which, as you know,
is a big problem here in America. A few of the strategies we observed, they eat off at
smaller plates. They tend to eat fewer calories at every seating. Instead of serving family
style, where you can sort of mindlessly eat as you’re talking, they serve at the counter,
put the food away, and then bring it to the table. They also have a 3,000-year-old adage, which
I think is the greatest sort of diet suggestion ever invented. This was invented by Confucius.
That diet is known as the Hara Hachi Bu diet, simply a little saying these people say before
their meal to remind them to stop eating when their stomach is 20% [sic] full. It takes
about half hour for that full feeling to travel from your belly to your brain. And by remembering
to stop at 80%, it helps keep you from doing that very thing. But like Sardinia, Okinawa has a few social
constructs that we can associate with longevity. We know that isolation kills. Fifteen years
ago, the average American had three good friends. We’re down to one and a half right now. If
you were lucky enough to be born in Okinawa, you were born into a system where you automatically
have a half a dozen friends with whom you travel through life. They call them moai.
And if you’re in a moai, you’re expected to share the bounty if you encounter luck. And
if things go bad, a child gets sick, a parent dies, you always have somebody who has your
back. This particular moai, these five ladies have
been together for 97 years. Their average age is 102. Typically in America, we’ve divided
our adult life up into two sections. There’s our work life where we’re productive, and
then, one day, boom, we retire. And typically, that has meant retiring to the easy chair
or going down to Arizona to play golf. In the Okinawan language, there’s not even
a word for retirement. Instead, there’s one word that infuses your entire life and that
word is ikigai. Roughly translated, it means the reason for which you wake up in the morning.
And for this 102-year old karate master, his ikigai was carrying forth this martial art.
For this 100-year-old fisherman, it was continuing to catch fish for his family three times a
week. And this is a question. The National Institute
on Aging actually gave us a questionnaire to give these centenarians. And one of the
questions… they were very culturally astute, the people who put the questionnaire. One
of the questions was what is your ikigai? They instantly knew why they woke up in the
morning. For this 102-year-old woman, her ikigai was simply her great, great, great
granddaughter. Two girls separated in age by 101 and a half years. And I asked her what
it felt like to hold a great, great, great granddaughter. And she put her head back and
she said, “It feels like leaping into the heaven.” That was a wonderful thought. My editor at Geographic wanted me to find
America’s Blue Zone. And for a while, we looked on the prairies of Minnesota where actually
there’s a very high proportion of centenarians, but that’s because all the young people left.
[Laughter] So we turned to the data again, and we found America’s longest-lived population
among the Seventh-Day Adventists concentrated in and around Loma Linda, California. Adventists are conservative Methodists. They
celebrate their Sabbath from sunset on Friday until sunset on Saturday, a 24-hour sanctuary
in time, they call it. And they follow five little habits that conveys to them extraordinary
longevity comparatively speaking. In America, here, life expectancy for the average woman
is 80, but for an Adventist woman, their life expectancy is 89. And the difference is even
more pronounced among men who are expected to live about 11 years longer than their American
counterparts. Now, this is a study that followed about 70,000
people for 30 years, a Sterling study. And I think it supremely illustrates the premise
of this Blue Zone project. This is a heterogeneous community. It’s white, black, Hispanic, Asian.
The only thing they have in common are a set of very small lifestyle habits that they follow
ritualistically for most of their lives. They take their diet directly from the Bible, Genesis
1:26 where God talks about legumes and seeds and one more stanza about green plants. Ostensibly
missing is meat. They take this sanctuary in time very serious.
For 24 hours every week, no matter how busy they are, how stressed out they are at work,
where the kids need to be driven, they stop everything and they focus on their God, their
social network. And then hardwired right into the religion are nature walks. And the power
of this is not that it’s done occasionally. The power is it’s done every week for a lifetime.
None of it is hard, none of it costs money. Adventists also tend to hang out with other
Adventists. So if you go to an Adventist party, you don’t see people swilling Jim Beam or
rolling a joint. Instead, they’re talking about their next nature walk, exchanging recipes,
and yes, they pray. But they influence each other in profound and measurable ways. This is a culture that has yielded Ellsworth
Wareham. Ellsworth Wareham is 97 years old. He’s a multimillionaire. Yet when a contractor
wanted $6,000 to build a privacy fence, he said, “With that kind of money, I’ll do it
myself.” So for the next three days, he was out shoveling cement and hauling poles around.
And predictively, perhaps, on the fourth day, he ended up in the operating room, but not
as the guy on the table, the guy doing open-heart surgery. At 97, he still does 20 open-heart
surgeries every month. Ed Rawlings is 103 years old now, an active
cowboy, starts his morning with a swim, and on the weekends, he likes to put on the boards,
[laughter] throw up rooster tails. And then, Marge Jetton. Marge is 104. Her
grandson actually lives in the Twin Cities here. She starts her day with lifting weights.
She rides her bicycle. And then she gets in a root beer-colored 1994 Cadillac Seville
and tears down the San Bernardino Freeway, where she still volunteers for seven different
organizations. I’ve been on 19 hardcore expeditions. I’m
probably the only person you’ll ever meet who rode his bicycle across the Sahara Desert
without sunscreen. But I’ll tell you, there is no adventure more harrowing than riding
shotgun [laughter] with Marge Jetton. “A stranger is a friend I haven’t met yet,” she’d say
to me. So what are the common denominators in these
three cultures? What are the things that they all do? And we managed to boil it down to
nine. In fact, we’ve done two more Blue Zone expeditions since this and these common denominators
hold true. And the first one and I’m about to utter a heresy here, none of them exercise,
at least the way we think of exercise. Instead, they set up their lives so that they’re constantly
nudged into physical activity. These 100-year-old Okinawa women are getting
up and down, off the ground. They sit on the floor 30 or 40 times a day. Sardinians live
in vertical houses, up and down the stairs. Every trip to the store or to church or to
their friend’s house, occasions a walk. They don’t have any conveniences. There’s not a
button to push to do yard work or house work. If they want to mix up a cake, they’re doing
it by hand. That’s physical activity. That burns calories just as much as going on the
treadmill does. When they do do intentional physical activity,
it’s things they enjoy. They tend to walk, the only proven way to stave off cognitive
decline. And they all tend to have a garden. They know how to set up their life in the
right way so they have the right outlook. Each of these cultures takes time to downshift.
The Sardinians pray, the Seventh-Day Adventists pray. The Okinawans have this ancestor veneration.
But when you’re in a hurry or stressed out, that triggers something called the inflammatory
response, which is associated with everything from Alzheimer’s disease to cardiovascular
disease. When you slow down for 15 minutes a day, you
turn that inflammatory state into a more anti-inflammatory state. They have vocabulary for sense of purpose,
ikigai like the Okinawans. The two most dangerous years in your life are the year you’re born
because of infant mortality and the year you retire. These people know their sense of purpose
and they activate it in their life, that’s worth about seven years of extra life expectancy. There’s no longevity diet. Instead, these
people drink a little bit every day, not a hard sell to the American population. They
tend to eat a plant-based diet. It doesn’t mean they don’t eat meat, but lots of beans
and nuts. And they have strategies to keep from overeating, little things that nudge
them away from the table at the right time. And then the foundation of all these is how
they connect. They put their families first, take care for their children and their aging
parents. They all tend to belong to a faith-based community which is worth between 4 and 14
extra years of life expectancy if you do it four times a month. And the biggest thing here is they also belong
to the right tribe. They were either born into or they proactively surrounded themselves
with the right people. We know from the Framingham studies that if your three best friends are
obese, there’s a 50 percent better chance that you’ll be overweight. So if you hang
out with unhealthy people, that’s going to have a measurable impact over time. Instead
if your friend’s idea of recreation is physical activity, bowling or playing hockey, biking
or gardening, if your friends drink a little but not too much, and they eat right, and
they’re engaged, and they’re trusting and trustworthy, that is going to have the biggest
impact over time. Diets don’t work. No diet in history of the
world has ever worked for more than 2 percent of the population. Exercise programs usually
start in January. They’re usually done by October. When it comes to longevity, there
is no short-term fix in a pill or anything else. But when you think about it, your friends
are long-term adventures and therefore, perhaps, the most significant thing you can do to add
more years to your life, and life to your years. Thank you very much.>>PARK: Please turn to the person sitting
next to you or right in front of you and share with them some ways you could use this in
your classroom and how you think this would help your children learn about adulthood and
aging. Talk to your neighbors. Now of course, I would love to hear your ideas,
but to be honest with you, because there are so many other things I want to share with
you, I’m just going to say that I know that going around in the room, I heard some really
good ideas. And as I was watching the video, the first time I watched it, I’m one of those
people that take notes. I take notes on books I read so I have to take notes on videos.
So the things I wrote on the board were the things that I just pulled out the very first
time I saw the video that I thought, wow, I could use these things in class. I could
talk about the stereotypes of aging. I could talk about the myths that they mentioned and
what the kids believe or didn’t know were true or false. And then certainly could talk about in the
United States, and some of you really keyed in on this are diet, the geography, the equity
or lack thereof of equity that we have towards people as they age, exercise, or our ideas
about it. And the social constructs that we have, I mean, that’s a topic that would really
be interesting. You know how they mentioned friendship, the BFF for 101 years? Great articles now and research coming out
on what kids think BFFs are, you know, best friends forever, and how their concept of
friendship is related to things like social networking sites. It’s very different than
the real circle of real people that you come in contact with. And the effects on health
and the effects on your mental states as well as physical, there’s a big difference, and
so you can bring that into the discussion as well. Now, don’t forget that it actually is a wonderful
thing for individuals that are aging as they get older, they’re on Facebook and they are
in contact with people that they could not be able to be in contact with because of their
physical health. And it’s a wonderful thing. It’s positive. We’ve got to look at both the
positive and negative of how we view friendship and how we actually interact with our friends.
And there’s a difference between the physical and the networking type of friendship. So
that can be a discussion back when you taught out the lessons and it could continue here
to see the differences between the type of friendship groups and the results of this
study. Do you have a question?>>WORKSHOP PARTICIPANT: Yeah, kind of rhetorical.
Is there any society in the world that has a more negative view towards aging, the aging
process in the elderly than the United States does?>>PARK: I don’t know. I mean, I’m not sure.
I couldn’t even answer that question, but it’s a good question to throw out there, to
think about in reference to how do we view aging and how do you think we should view
aging. And personally, what I could tell with my unit on aging, I want my children to have
a little bit of a different point of view. I would like it to be more on the positive
ends than what they came in with because some have a great view of aging because they have
grandparents that are active (I’m going to say this even though it’s going to kill me)
they’re my age. I can have grandkids, but they’re active, they’re healthy. And then
there are other children that have grandparents that are not active and healthy, so there
are all these different views about when you get to be 60, 70, and 80, how are you going
to interact? So I think the more we bring in a positive attitude about aging, the better,
both for the students and also for the relationships with those individuals in their lives.>>WORKSHOP PARTICIPANT: This lesson is also
an opportunity if you are the sociology teacher or you work with the sociology teacher, if
you both have this topic and make the connections at looking at a personal level to looking
at a part of the group level. There are a lot of connections.>>PARK: And when you study social institutions
in sociology, you can definitely bring in these links to look at how we house individuals
as they age and the other things that all relate to the aging process that some of us
have had a lot of experience with both positive and negative. So anyway, there’s a lot you
can do with it, right? Another stuff, this is an awesome research
center, so for history as my list goes, I mean this you want to go to. It’s P-e-w, the
Pew Research Center. They happen to have a lot of different studies. And this particular
survey on aging, which I found, among a nationally representative sample of 2,969 adults, showed
that there’s a big gap between the expectations of young adults and middle aged adults about
old age. There’s a big gap between what your students think when they’re high school students,
college students, young adults, and then our age, your age, all right? So what are those
gaps? So this is another excellent place to go for information that you can use in your
classroom. And there are a lot of different studies in here that you can use. So you just
go to the data bank and you’ll find out where the top stories are. You’ll find out the latest
downloads and the latest studies that relate to all different topics that you can use in
your class. Here’s the topic index, so you can see there
are all different topics that relate, again, to history classes. So for a couple of you
who are teaching history, you could look in the research on politics, energy, the environment,
global attitudes, foreign affairs, Internet, technology. And that’s great for sociology,
by the way. And also public opinions, they have stuff on religion that could relate directly
to what you were just saying about the study that we just looked at. Research methodology,
so that you can use that in your research section and that is part of your class, and
of course, social trends. So I mean, look through this and find ways that you can utilize
it. Once again, it’s a great resource for research. You could use it in a number of
different places in your classroom. Growing Old in America is the one that I would
suggest you look at in reference to this topic specifically. Okay. It’s also got memory loss, inability to drive,
the end of sexual activity, struggle with loneliness, depression, difficulty paying
bills; issues that the children should be aware of, issues that adults are dealing with,
and issues that help them understand better the benchmarks that are associated with aging,
both positive and negative. There are a lot of positive things. We don’t want to just
teach the negative, okay? So they look at both positive and negative. In fact, here are some of the results. Look
for them, okay? Older adults report experiencing certain things at different levels than youngsters,
okay? Older adults report experiencing fewer of the benefits of aging than younger adults
thought they would get. You follow me? “Oh, I’m going to retire. I’m going to move to
the islands.” Yeah, right, benefits of aging. As you grow older, things become different
in your life as far as expectations. There’s also a different expectancy about when you
spend time with your family, traveling, pleasure or hobbies, volunteer work, second careers.
So it’s interesting to look at how the children think about it in your classroom and they
compare it to what they found out in the research. Generation gaps that is tangible. We consider
some of the most basic questions about aging. Eighteen to 29-nine-year olds believe that
the average person is old at age 60. So I have two more years. Middle aged respondents
put the threshold close to 70 so that’s cool. I’ve got 12 more years. I like that. Respondents,
ages 65 and above, said that the average person does not become old until turning 74. So that
means we have a couple more years. Who here is over 74? Please tell me your response.
When do you become old?>>WORKSHOP PARTICIPANT: I would say about
84. [Laughter] [Applause]>>PARK: It’s just amazing when we look at
the different viewpoints that kids have, adults have, individuals have. And of course, as
you grow older, your mind thinks differently. So I just think these potential markers need
to be discussed with your kids and also need to be put in I guess in the reality of the
age group and understand where they’re coming from. And then let them ask their parents
these questions or let them ask their grandparents. Let them ask people they know to get the differences
in opinions so that they can really see how they’re not the only ones. And they are not
the right answer all the time. There are a lot of different answers for the same question,
which is a great set of questions that you can talk about in your lesson, right? When
does old age begin? Now, we don’t always use the term old age,
by the way. In fact, most folks have changed it to later adulthood. And I like that.>>WORKSHOP PARTICIPANT: I think we also view
it the opposite way. When kids are 16, they think they’re an adult. And so the older you
get, I think that when do they become an adult also gets older. So they view the opposite.>>PARK: When do they become an adult? Yes.
And actually, you can ask them. Do you remember when you were five and you thought your mother
was old, and she was 20? [Laughs] I’m looking at 25. So that’s a great perspective there.
You really have to look at how you can change that question around and relate it to your
kids. There are a handful of potential markers that
we do have to be realistic about: failing health, ability to live independently, inability
to drive. At your age, good health is pretty much a
thing of the past. My advice is find an illness you enjoy. That’s just a funny-funny that
I made, okay? But we do have to understand some of these indicators and try to figure
out how to work with them. So maybe if we give our students some ideas at their early
age, as they become adults, they may now think about it differently. Maybe they’ll understand
their parents better as they age. Maybe they’ll understand their grandparents better. I mean,
there are a lot of things that can get you to understanding how aging occurs, right? And these are some of the responses from the
research.>>WORKSHOP PARTICIPANT: A quick question.
I was just thinking of something in [unclear] feel good. It said that elderly people are
less likely to get regular sicknesses. And I know if it even makes sense.>>PARK: No. It’s true. From what I understand,
they don’t get the common cold as much, those kinds of things. Yeah, the immune system has
[cross-talking].>>WORKSHOP PARTICIPANT: I can tell bigger
things aren’t great if I were to deal [cross-talking].>>PARK: Absolutely.>>WORKSHOP PARTICIPANT: From personal experience,
you know the cold that you get every year as you’re teaching, for me, it was pneumonia
in January inevitably. Those things have backed away. I’ve got my [unclear], my type 2 diabetes
and my other things that I deal with on a long-term basis, but I don’t get the little
stuff so much. [Cross-talking]>>PARK: You’re safe before Christmas. Remember?
Being a teacher and you get behind for Christmas and you couldn’t breathe and you were scared
to take on the school because you were a new teacher. And you went to school and you couldn’t
breathe. By the time you’re like teaching about 10 years, you don’t have any of that.
You become immune to the kids [laughs], hopefully immune to their illnesses. Yes, I’m serious.
How many people have experienced this over the years? [Laughs] You’re healthier than
most 24-year-olds could come in, right?>>WORKSHOP PARTICIPANT: Yes and no. I don’t
get the colds. They come in. They’ve been throwing up for four days. I’m fine. What
I get down is the lifestyle stuff. I have to get enough water so I don’t get a kidney
stone. I don’t get enough exercise or something like that, it’s…>>PARK: And that’s the aging process. Okay? So there’s a big question I’d like you to
leave with. One of the things I want you to do, I really think that this would be a good
question to focus lessons on, right, one of the many? There’s a great bit of research
now on… of course, we want to make sure our students understand themselves so just
to make a couple of other suggestions, you might want to look at this research that talks
about demographics in the society, that talks about the millennium culture, and how they
have high expectations, diversity, and thought and they’re very technologically immersed.>>WORKSHOP PARTICIPANT: We know that.>>PARK: Connected to their cell phones so
that they’re walking into fountains in the mall and things like that. But anyway, this
allows us to help them better understand themselves and the young adults, if you’re teaching 18-year-olds
or 25-year-olds, the diversity of their group, compared to adults, the differences in the
ethnicities. This is 2009 so of course, it’d be great to update the stats in another year
or two. But it’s really hard to get stats for 2012 that are newer than 2010 or 2011
because it usually takes a year or two to really get the stats published. I don’t mind
using stats that are two or three years old in my classroom, but then you try to update
them if you can. Differences in priorities, something you can
talk about in your classroom when you’re discussing aging and how your priorities and your kids’
priorities change over their lifespan. Interesting, right? Differences in overall attitude, are you more
or less confident? This is a great discussion topic for that stability versus change issue
in development. Are you as confident, more confident, or less confident? Are you more
connected, less connected? What else? Are you open to change? As you get older, how
many of you really think that you could become more open to change? Raise your hand. I have really become more open to change.
Now, you can discuss a lot of things. You take that evaluation and write journal entries
about that. You can have small group discussions, but certainly a topic I think you might want
to address, too, is response to aging. And I really think that this is my goal. If I
were to have a goal for my unit on aging, this is my goal. And I would look at my essential questions
based on that goal, enduring understanding, and objectives for my lessons and I make plans
from there. That’s my end goal for my students in my class. And I really think it’s important
to teach about aging and later adulthood because of that.>>PARK: Okay. Standards, areas – I’ll put
this on the Wiki. Please note once again that when we’re talking about these performance
indicators, if you were working on this particular area and you have some ideas, please, give
the to me, give them to Caitlin. Put them on the link online to upload them. We really
need performance indicators for old standards. So these are just ones I wrote. Just came
up with these because I thought they’re related to my lessons. And I thought that maybe they
were pretty good. And they relate to the performance standards 7-1, 7-2, 7-3, okay? So that’s that.
I know you bet we’re almost done here, but there are a couple other things I wanted to
point out. Actually, we’d love for you to take a little
survey that I think it would be interesting to use in your class if you’re teaching about
aging. And I don’t know if Mike, you want to share anything specific with them? But
what I’ll do is if you want to talk… I do have two hard copies of what I’ve shown you.
You can download. These are the ones… there are two samples of the newsletters that I
use with my kids in the proper way of learning approach. And then in reference to death and dying,
I got this from my textbook that I use in my college class. It’s a developmental psychology
class. It’s lifespan development. And I give them this death anxiety questionnaire and
we discuss it before we talk about death and dying in that particular class. So it’s from
my textbook, and it’s from Pearson, from the teacher’s textbook guide. And it’s just a
little 15-question questionnaire that you might want to take. And then on the back,
it’s a self-scoring thing. So I’ll pass that out for you. And of course, you can use it
with your students as well, okay?>>SULLIVAN: So we’ll just take a couple of
minutes. I have a couple of things in the same domain, development domain, development
and learning domain. And I know one theme that came up a little bit in these conversations,
and Peter and maybe one other person had a comment about quarterly we have to move in
our classes and so on. And we’re on in different schedules and like… so we try to keep some
of those things into account. Again, I have handouts with these things. One thing… I thought we might have two values
for you. One, you might want to do something like this. The other is even if you don’t
want to do it with your students that it might be an interesting reference for you from my
class or one of us can do this. I do little graphic organizers I just call test prep sheets,
particularly the way you have to organize things up and doing this for a long time.
I originally did it for myself. When I was first starting to teach and I’d be writing
a test, and I went into it with no… conceptually what I had done and not test things ahead
and head for the college [laughter]. Because I think a lot of the tests like that, I imagine
you went through it. But through the last part, you can figure it out. So I wanted to avoid that trap. And then early
on, I thought, I’m just going to give this to the kids too. And I usually color code
them, so just the learning theory one for what it’s worth. And this one will be pink
and then another one is orange and so on. And especially in class, any class, where
you’re going to give a cumulative assessment in the end, any type of cumulative assessment,
but I know for advanced placement class, we have a big test at the end. It’s going to
be great. They have 13, 14 of these at the end. It could be useful. Even if you don’t
want to use it for your kids, it might be interesting to check. Not check yourself because
this isn’t the be all and end all by any means. But for us to talk about, I don’t actually
give that or what do you do with? Is that worth doing and so on? So that’s one thing
I’ll give to you. Another that kind of fits with what Debra
is doing, but overall, with stage theories in general, once you got the introductory
discussion about continuity, discontinuity is easy and so on. You’re going to do stage
theories. I have a little packet here with several things that you can get at stage theories.
One of mine is Erikson’s psychosocial stages and lifespan. So there are two things that I have on that.
One is, I find that really interesting, but maybe to be like [unclear] site. And I’m not
sure if the kids will. Also, they try to memorize it, and that’s very wonderful. So one thing
I think, and you probably do this intuitively in so many ways. And I kind of intuited my
way through it for a long time, and so I try to do it systematically [unclear]. What do you think most 20- to 30-year-olds,
what’s the big thing people are deciding that they’re annual wrestling with? And often,
not all, but often they don’t really reason out Erikson’s stage theory on their own. And
then it’s just a matter of plugging in the gaps and getting terminology. Now, I’m sure
we all do that a lot. We do a lot of drawing for what they know and can reason out and
then it’s beautiful when you said yes. And that’s called this and it was supported by
this research. And then, they’ve actually constructed their knowledge rather than just
you disseminating the knowledge. So I’m sure you’ve done things like this, but I am a little
formed for the way I ask those questions. And usually, as many of you do, we have a
million strategies for this. Have them write for a moment, get in a dyad or a triad, compare,
share. I have found and certainly over half the time, you get the stages. In one little
segment, you’ve done Erikson’s stage theories. And so then simultaneously, you can follow
up with stage theories in general because Erikson’s stage theory isn’t a discontinuity
theory as much as some others are, so I have a little handout in there where I just made
a little review of several stage theories; Piaget and so on. And then foreshadowing some
that might come later in the class; Freudian psychosexual stage – very problematic perhaps
– and others, Kohlberg on moral reasoning, also rich for critical thinking and asking
them to rate it on a scale. Is it truly discontinuous? Is it stage-like
or is this is more of little continuity breaks? And then it feels great. Is it universal?
Is it universal across culture? Is it universal in terms of sex differences and so on? And
I lost my train of thought. Is it universal? Is it discontinuous? And then I have one.
Is it hierarchical? That is, once you move up the ladder, do you ever go back? And that’s
where even this stage alleged… not alleged, but Kübler-Ross on death and dying. Everyone
says, “Nobody really … she didn’t represent it as a true stage theory.” And certainly,
I don’t know about you. I like that anger one. [Laughter] but those questions they just
invite the question of continuity versus discontinuity. Last thing is I do use mnemonics a lot in
my class. And how many of you do know… this isn’t just kind of a rhetorical question.
I have to kind of get sensitive. How many of you know or use the paper word [sounds
like] mnemonic Okay. I think it’s good to teach it because it’s fun, but it’s not just
fun. And usually there’s a shopping list and kids … I’ve done it sometimes just quickly
with freshmen. At the end of the year, I go on the freshmen history classes and just do
some sidestep. And we’ll do paper word mnemonic and do a shopping list. And then, three years
later, I have to do psych. We do memory and we’ll talk about mnemonic devices. I’m not
making this up. I’m sure you’ve had experiences like this too. And say, “Paper word mnemonic.”
And the kid sitting in the back is like, “I remember the shopping list from freshman year.” And they do, and they haven’t thought about
it again. Now, that’s relatively mindless and very concrete and relatively mindless
but not irrelevant. But I think you can use the paper word mnemonic to remember the Erikson
stages. So I use the paper word mnemonic. I usually walk them through the mnemonic,
the imagery. One is a bun [sounds like] in the paper word mnemonic. You picture a little
child, maybe you as a child or your little brother or something when they were a baby.
One is a bun. Picture of a one-year-old sitting in a highchair about to eat a hamburger bun.
And they start to cry and someone pats them on the head and says, “It’s okay. It’s all
right.” They see trust eating that, trust versus mistrust. Two, three, and four, which
overlap quite a bit, the industry kids always have trouble with that – industry [unclear]
Now they’re all the same. In many ways, they are, but you can use this, too, the shoe with
a child. We’ve all seen this. [Unclear] little kid who wants to put the shoe on but can’t
tie their shoes but won’t let you tie their shoes. We’d like to leave today. so let me get through
those for you, but they’re no longer with myself except you’re not actually able to
do that yet. And you can do picture … I’d walk you through the whole thing, but I actually
wrote it down. And then later, when you circle back to it, it’s pretty quick. They constructed
their knowledge of the stage theory originally anyway so it is understanding. It’s simply
a way to retrieve what you understand and retrieve it six months later if you need it.
And the first time I did this, it was because I was teaching it a long time ago and I could…
two, three, and four, special ed, I couldn’t keep straight. Ever got that problem? [Laughter] So it’s like, well, I can’t screw this up
really. If they say, “What’s the difference between two or three?” And I’m like, “Frankly,
I do not know.” [Laughter] I know it’s my job, but I’m not doing it.
So I wanted to get it right. I used it and then I thought, well, someone did [unclear].
So I have handouts for all of these. And if you don’t mind sitting for a minute while
Craig talks I’ll pass it on.

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